E-Info: Electromobility Know-how

Electromobility: Standards, Technical and Legal Information

Change to Electromobility and Autonomous Driving

The switch from combustion engines to electric drives and autonomous driving require new components. This has also changed the requirements for cables.

New laws and norms were necessary to regulate and standardize new forms of mobility.

Drive technologies for electric vehicles

Battery-electric vehicles ⇒ Power source: lithium battery (lithium-ion battery)

  • Electrical energy is converted into mechanical energy without CO2 emissions. Electrical energy, chemically stored in the battery, is made available to the electric motor. High-voltage battery mainly for the engine, low-voltage battery for smaller consumers, such as on-board electronics, radio, lighting; power supply for the components is regulated via the battery management system (BMS); use of high-voltage cables (such as LEONI Hivocar®)
  • Charging of the batteries via charging stations, various charging types (AC, DC) up to high power charging with special cables (HPC); charger for AC charging inside the vehicle (on-board charging), for DC charging in the station; charging port is the interface between the battery and the power source; special charging infrastructure required

Fuel cell vehicles ⇒ Power source: fuel cell, hydrogen technology

  • In the fuel cell, electrical energy is released from hydrogen and oxygen in a chemical reaction. The electricity is either converted directly into motion in the electric motor or temporarily stored in a battery.
  • Refueling at hydrogen filling stations, which can basically be integrated into existing filling stations (e.g. H2 Mobility GmbH & Co. KG)

Hybrid vehicles ⇒ power source: combustion and electric motor connected by control unit

  • Full hybrid: can drive with either of the two drive types

    • Two-mode hybrid system: works like a continuously variable transmission

    • First mode: for low speeds and high loads. Combined operation (electric combustion engine) as well as purely battery-powered driving possible. During stop-and-go traffic, the internal combustion engine stays off

    • Second mode: for cross-country trips

  • Plug-in hybrid (also socket hybrid): The battery can be charged both via the internal combustion engine and on the power grid

Standards for electric vehicles and charging systems

ISO 19642-1:2019
Road vehicles – Automotive cables
„One for all“, new since 1/2019, global valid overall standard for automotive cables

DIN EN ISO 15118 – 1:2019-08, EN ISO 15118 – 1:2019
Road vehicles – Vehicle to grid communication interface

DIN EN ISO 17409:2017-07
Electrically propelled road vehicles - Connection to an external electric power supply - Safety requirements

DIN EN IEC 61851-1:2019-12
Electric vehicle conductive charging system

DIN EN 62196-1:2015-06, IEC 62196
Plugs, socket-outlets, vehicle connectors and vehicle inlets - Conductive charging of electric vehicles

DIN EN 62752:2017-04
In-cable control and protection device for mode 2 charging of electric road vehicles

IEC 62893-1:2017
Charging cables for electric vehicles for rated voltages up to and including 0,6/1 kV

DIN EN 50620:2020-03
Electric cables – Charging cables for electric vehicles

Legal information

Gesetzeskarte Elektromobilität

Laws and guidelines for electromobility promotion

Electromobility Law Map
Map of central strategies, laws and regulations at European, federal, state and local level (with links)

Framework conditions and incentives for electric vehicles and charging infrastructure

The future drives electrically, compact guide electric mobility (BMVI, German Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure)

Whitepapers

Press articles

Organisations

National platform for E-Mobility

ZVEI
Germany‘s Electrical Industry Association

CharIN (Charging Interface Initiative e. V.)
The CharIN Vision: Developing and establishing the Combined Charging System (CCS) as the global standard for charging battery powered electric vehicles

OPEN Alliance SIG (One Pair EtherNet Alliance Special Interest Group)
A non-profit, open industry alliance of mainly automotive industry and technology providers collaborating to encourage wide scale adoption of Ethernet-based networks as the standard in automotive networking applications.

AUTOSAR (AUTomotive Open System ARchitecture)
A worldwide development partnership of vehicle manufacturers, suppliers, service providers and companies from the automotive electronics, semiconductor and software industry.

DKE German Commission for Electrical Engineering
expertise centre for electrotechnical standardization in Germany

Ionity: Charging infrastructure
Europe-wide establishment and expansion, "High Power Charging Network", joint venture of the OEMs

H2 Mobility GmbH & Co. KG
Responsible for the nationwide establishment of a hydrogen infrastructure to supply cars with fuel cell drives in Germany

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